Supreme Court Justices in 1940

The Supreme Court was created by Article III of the United States Constitution, which states that « the judicial power of the United States is vested in a Supreme Court »[7] and was organized by the 1st United States Congress. By the Judiciary Act of 1789, Congress established the court`s trial and appellate jurisdiction, created thirteen judicial districts, and fixed the number of judges at six (one chief justice and five associate judges). [8] [9] U.S. Supreme Court. , 1940. ?. Photograph. Although Supreme Court justices are appointed for life, many have retired or resigned. Beginning in the early 20th century, many judges who voluntarily left the Court did so by withdrawing from the Court without leaving the federal judiciary completely.

A retired judge is no longer a member of the Supreme Court under the United States Code, but remains eligible by appointment as a judge of a U.S. Court of Appeals or District Court, and many retired judges have served in this capacity. In the past, the average length of service at the Court of Justice was less than 15 years. Since 1970, however, the average length of service has risen to about 26 years. [11] Since the creation of the Supreme Court in 1789, 115 people have served on it. Conditions of service at the Court for the 106 non-serving judges range from 36 years and 211 days to 163 days for Thomas Johnson. As of January 9, 2022, the terms of the nine sitting justices range from 30 years and 78 days for Clarence Thomas to 1 year and 74 days for Amy Coney Barrett. Five individuals were sustained as associate judges and later appointed separately as Chief Justices: John Rutledge, Edward Douglass White, Charles Evans Hughes, Harlan F.

Stone and William Rehnquist. [b] Although they are listed twice, only one index number has been assigned to each of them. The justices of the Supreme Court are:[21][22] The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial authority in the United States. Its composition, under the Judicial Act of 1869, consists of the Chief Justice of the United States and eight associate justices, six of whom constitute a quorum. [1] [2] Article II, Section 2, Section 2, Section 2 of the Constitution gives the President of the United States the power to appoint Supreme Court justices and appoint them with the advice and consent of the United States Senate. Judges are appointed for life[3] and receive a salary of $255,500 per year for the Chief Justice and $244,400 per year for each associate judge beginning in 2014. [4] [5] [6] This graphic chronology shows the evolution of judges in the United States. Supreme court. [21] [22] This can be used to provide information (and comparisons between judges) about each judge`s predecessors, successors and fellow judges, as well as their tenure at the Court. There are no official names or numbers for each seat of the associate judges, which are simply listed by number in the table below.

In addition, the evolution of U.S. presidents is displayed at the top of the timeline to provide more detailed historical context. One of the new photographers of the 1940s was Fabian Bachrach Jr., who ran a respected national chain of portrait studios. In 1950, his quick wit – aided by new high-speed lighting devices – led to this spontaneous and humorous moment in the family album of group photos of the courtyard. A later article published by the Saturday Evening Post explained: While the press had taken group photos of the judges in color since the 1940s, this is the first official group photo taken in color. It was considered for a book on the Supreme Court entitled Equal Justice Under Law, co-published by the National Geographic Society and the Federal Bar Association. Since the same group of judges met for an official photo in 1962, it is also rare for the Court to sit for a group photo only after a change in composition. Nine justices currently sit on the Supreme Court. In order of seniority, they are: For more than five decades, the official group photo has been taken in color in the Supreme Court`s East Conference Room with a red carpet. The judges posed in the same arrangement of seats and in front of a red velvet curtain. The only important variables are the arrival, departure and placement of each judge (and photographer). The price of this iconic appearance is that the only elements photographers can alter are slight variations in lighting, distance, and lens choice, making judges feel closer or farther away from the viewer.

Since 1941, press photographers have taken their own photos and video recordings of the judges after the official photo was taken. With this first official group photo in color, all the primary visual elements of this tradition have been brought together. The seating arrangement was arranged in Bell`s workshop in 1894; the velvet curtain was first used by Clinedinst`s studio in 1916 and made permanent by Harris & Ewing in 1930. And the carpet of the court`s large ceremonial conference rooms is visible in every photo taken since 1941. Since photographs were first published in the 1880s, newspapers and publishers wishing to reproduce the group photo of the court had to rely on the only official photograph taken by the court-selected photographer. As the news industry grew, news agencies wanted to take control of theirs and became increasingly frustrated with what they saw as exclusive access for a privileged few. © Bill Auth (1950- ) for U.S. News & World Report for use with permission. Since 1941, all group photos have been taken in the Supreme Court building, since 1965 in color. Harris & Ewing`s 10-year monopoly on group photography particularly angered other members of the White House News Photographers Association. When Harlan Fiske Stone became chief justice in 1941, the president of the association immediately wrote to him, suggesting that the eleven members be allowed to take the group photo, and also suggested that the portrait session be held in the new Supreme Court building.

The plea worked, and this year, the humiliated Harris & Ewing was one of three studios that took official photos of the court one by one. Since then, official photos have been taken in the Supreme Court building. Dozens of people are involved in taking a new group photo. Once the judges` schedules have been coordinated by the curator and a date has been set, the information officer informs the press and participating photographers. Meanwhile, the marshal`s construction support staff (above) prepares the room, hangs the velvet curtain and steames it on the spot. The court photographer installs lights and cameras, while the PR manager and staff work with press photographers who install theirs. Then, after the official photo is taken, the press is escorted to take both the suit and the judges` head photos behind a line for a limited time – in recent years they have had two minutes. Public Information Officer Toni House (back row, left) poses with eight press photographers instead of the judges for a test before the portrait session. In the pre-digital era, the preparation for this event included a rehearsal the day before, editing the film and making prints to make sure the lighting was correct and everything was working properly.